Background: Vitex rotundifolia has long been used in traditional medicine to treat asthma and other allergic diseases. Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of V rotundifolia in cultured A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. Methods: In the present study, A549 cells were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 4, and interleukin 1β to induce expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules involved in eosinophil chemotaxis. The anti-inflammatory effects of V rotundifolia on stimulated A549 cells were then evaluated by analyzing eotaxin secretion and eosinophil migration. In addition, the effects of V rotundifolia on gene expression profiles in stimulated A549 cells were evaluated by oligonucleotide microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTRP). Results: The V rotundifolia-treated A549 cells had significantly suppressed eotaxin secretion and eosinophil migration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the results of the microarray analysis and RTRP revealed that inflammation-related genes and cell adhesion-related genes were down-regulated in V rotundifolia-treated A549 cells. Furthermore, several genes related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway were down-regulated in V rotundifolia-treated A549 cells. Conclusions: The mechanism responsible for the effects of V rotundifolia on A549 cells is closely associated with regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Thus, V rotundifolia may be useful in the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.
EMTREE drug terms: cell adhesion molecule; chemokine; eotaxin; interleukin 1beta; interleukin 4; mitogen activated protein kinase; tumor necrosis factor alpha; Vitex rotundifolia extract
EMTREE medical terms: antiinflammatory activity; article; asthma; cell migration; cell stimulation; chemotaxis; controlled study; DNA microarray; down regulation; drug inhibition; eosinophil; epithelium cell; gene expression; human; human tissue; priority journal; protein expression; protein secretion; real time polymerase chain reaction; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; Vitex rotundifolia
MeSH: Cell Adhesion Molecules; Cell Line; Cell Movement; Chemokine CCL11; Chemokines; Culture Media, Conditioned; Cytokines; Down-Regulation; Drugs, Chinese Herbal; Eosinophils; Epithelial Cells; Gene Expression Profiling; Gene Expression Regulation; Humans; Inflammation Mediators; Interleukin-1beta; Interleukin-4; MAP Kinase Signaling System; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Up-Regulation; Vitex
Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document.
Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: mitogen activated protein kinase, 142243-02-5;CCL11 protein, human; Cell Adhesion Molecules; Chemokine CCL11; Chemokines; Culture Media, Conditioned; Cytokines; Drugs, Chinese Herbal; IL4 protein, human; Inflammation Mediators; Interleukin-1beta; Interleukin-4, 207137-56-2; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha