Adhesion of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals to kidney cells may be a key event in the pathogenesis of kidney stones associated with marked hyperoxaluria. Previously, we found that 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-Β-D-glucose (PGG), isolated from a traditional medicinal herb, reduced CaOx crystal adhesion to renal epithelial cells by acting on the cells as well as on the crystal surface. Here we used the ethylene glycol (EG)-mediated hyperoxaluric rat model and found evidence of oxidant stress as indicated by decreases in the activities of the renal antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, with increased kidney cell apoptosis and serum malondialdehyde levels, all evident by 21 days of EG treatment. These effects of hyperoxaluria were reversed by concurrent PGG treatment along with decreased urinary oxalate levels and CaOx supersaturation. Renal epithelial cell expression of the crystal binding molecule hyaluronan increased diffusely within 7 days of EG initiation, suggesting it is not a result of but precedes crystal deposition. Renal cell osteopontin (OPN) was also upregulated in EG-treated animals, and PGG significantly attenuated overexpression of both OPN and hyaluronan. Thus, our findings demonstrate that PGG reduces renal crystallization and oxidative renal cell injury, and may be a candidate chemopreventive agent for nephrolithiasis. © 2011 International Society of Nephrology.
calcium oxalate; hyaluronan; nephrolithiasis; oxalate; oxidative stress
EMTREE drug terms: 1,2,3,4,5,6 penta o galloyl beta dextro glucose; albumin; antioxidant; calcium oxalate; catalase; creatinine; ethylene glycol; glucose derivative; glutathione peroxidase; hyaluronic acid; malonaldehyde; nitrogen; osteopontin; oxalic acid; plant extract; reactive oxygen metabolite; superoxide dismutase; unclassified drug; urea
EMTREE medical terms: animal experiment; animal tissue; antioxidant activity; apoptosis; article; controlled study; creatinine blood level; crystallization; enzyme activity; epithelium cell; human; human cell; hyperoxaluria; kidney cell; lipid peroxidation; male; nephrolithiasis; nonhuman; oxidative stress; poison ivy; priority journal; rat; Rhus chinensis; upregulation; urea nitrogen blood level; urinary excretion; urine level
MeSH: Animals; Apoptosis; Crystallization; Ethylene Glycol; Hyaluronic Acid; Hydrolyzable Tannins; Hyperoxaluria; Kidney; Kidney Calculi; Male; Osteopontin; Oxidative Stress; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Reactive Oxygen Species; Superoxide Dismutase
Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document.
Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: calcium oxalate, 563-72-4; catalase, 9001-05-2; creatinine, 19230-81-0, 60-27-5; ethylene glycol, 107-21-1; glutathione peroxidase, 9013-66-5; hyaluronic acid, 31799-91-4, 9004-61-9, 9067-32-7; malonaldehyde, 542-78-9; nitrogen, 7727-37-9; osteopontin, 106441-73-0; oxalic acid, 144-62-7; superoxide dismutase, 37294-21-6, 9016-01-7, 9054-89-1; urea, 57-13-6;Ethylene Glycol, 107-21-1; Hyaluronic Acid, 9004-61-9; Hydrolyzable Tannins; Osteopontin, 106441-73-0; Reactive Oxygen Species; Superoxide Dismutase, 22.214.171.124; beta-penta-O-galloyl-glucose, 14937-32-7