Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that leads to impairment of motor skills and speech. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes damage to the dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and 1-4-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) causes cell death in differentiated PC12 cells that is similar to the degeneration that occurs in PD. Moreover, MPTP treatment increases the activity of the microglia cells that produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). We recently reported that Ligustri Fructus (LF), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, increases cell viability in a yeast model of PD. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effect of LF (0.01, 5, 10 ug) on the neurotoxicity of MPTP in mice and on the MPP+ -induced cell death in differentiated PC12 cells. In vivo experiment, MPTP injection revealed a significant loss of DA neurons in the substantia nigra, while LF (100, 200 mg/ kg) treatment dramatically reversed DA neuron loss in immunohistochemistry assay for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Furthermore, LF attenuated the MPP+ -induced cell death, decreased the generation of ROS, and activated glutathione peroxidase in PC12 cells. These results suggest that LF may be beneficial for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD.