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2013년 노벨 화학상

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  • 2013.10.11 09:09
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
 

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013 was awarded jointly to Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".

올해 노벨화학상은 마르틴 카르플루스(83)와 마이클 레빗(66), 아리에 와르셸(73)에게 돌아갔다. 노벨상을 주관하는 스웨덴 왕립과학원 노벨위원회는 9일(현지시각) “현대 이론화학(계산화학) 분야에서 큰 분자의 성질이나 분자끼리의 반응을 설명하는 컴퓨터 시뮬레이션 방법을 개발한 마르틴 카르플루스 프랑스 스트라스부르대 및 미국 하버드대 교수와 마이클 레빗 미국 스탠퍼드의학대학원 교수, 아리에 와르셸 서던캘리포니아대 교수를 노벨화학상 수상자로 선정했다”고 발표했다.
 
About the Nobel prize Laureate
2013노벨화학상수상자 

Press Release
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2013 to
Martin Karplus
Universite de Strasbourg, France and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Michael Levitt
Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
and
Arieh Warshel
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA “for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

The computer - your Virgil in the world of atoms
Chemists used to create models of molecules using plastic balls and sticks. Today, the modelling is carried out in computers. In the 1970s, Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel laid the foundation for the powerful programs that are used to understand and predict chemical processes. Computer models mirroring real life have become crucial for most advances made in chemistry today.

Chemical reactions occur at lightning speed. In a fraction of a millisecond, electrons jump from one atomic nucleus to the other. Classical chemistry has a hard time keeping up; it is virtually impossible to experimentally map every little step in a chemical process. Aided by the methods now awarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, scientists let computers unveil chemical processes, such as a catalyst’s purification of exhaust fumes or the photosynthesis in green leaves.

The work of Karplus, Levitt and Warshel is ground-breaking in that they managed to make Newton’s classical physics work side-by-side with the fundamentally different quantum physics. Previously, chemists had to choose to use either or. The strength of classical physics was that calculations were simple and could be used to model really large molecules. Its weakness, it offered no way to simulate chemical reactions. For that purpose, chemists instead had to use quantum physics. But such calculations required enormous computing power and could therefore only be carried out for small molecules.

This year’s Nobel Laureates in chemistry took the best from both worlds and devised methods that use both classical and quantum physics. For instance, in simulations of how a drug couples to its target protein in the body, the computer performs quantum theoretical calculations on those atoms in the target protein that interact with the drug. The rest of the large protein is simulated using less demanding classical physics.

Today the computer is just as important a tool for chemists as the test tube. Simulations are so realistic that they predict the outcome of traditional experiments.

Read more about this year's prize
- Popular Information
- Scientific Background

Martin Karplus, U.S. and Austrian citizen. Born 1930 in Vienna, Austria. Ph.D. 1953 from California Institute of Technology, CA, USA. Professeur Conventionne, Universite de Strasbourg, France and Theodore William Richards Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
- http://chemistry.harvard.edu/people/martin-karplus
- http://www-isis.u-strasbg.fr/biop/start

Michael Levitt, U.S., British and Israeli citizen. Born 1947 in Pretoria, South Africa. Ph.D. 1971 from University of Cambridge, UK. Robert W. and Vivian K. Cahill Professor in Cancer Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
- http://med.stanford.edu/profiles/Michael_Levitt

Arieh Warshel, U.S. and Israeli citizen. Born 1940 in Kibbutz Sde-Nahum, Israel. Ph.D. 1969 from Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Distinguished Professor, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
- http://chem.usc.edu/faculty/Warshel.html

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Martin Karplus

Born: 15 March 1930, Vienna, Austria
Affiliation at the time of the award: Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Prize motivation: "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Links to other sites
- Martin Karplus, Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Harvard University
- Martin Karplus, Universite de Strasbourg, France

Articles
Levitt, M. (2001) The birth of computational structural biology, Nature structural biology 8:392?393.
Karplus, M. (2006) Spinach on the Ceiling: A Theoretical Chemist’s Return to Biology,
Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 35: 1-47.
Johnson, P. (2012) Warshel Feted by Royal Society of Chemistry, http://128.125.126.117/news/stories/1298/
warshel-fted-by-royal-society-of-chemistry/  

Michael Levitt

Born: 9 May 1947, Pretoria, South Africa
Affiliation at the time of the award: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
Prize motivation: "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Links to other sites
- Michael Levitt, Stanford University School of Medicine

Articles
Levitt, M. (2001) The birth of computational structural biology, Nature structural biology 8:392?393.
Karplus, M. (2006) Spinach on the Ceiling: A Theoretical Chemist’s Return to Biology,
Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 35: 1-47.
Johnson, P. (2012) Warshel Feted by Royal Society of Chemistry, http://128.125.126.117/news/stories/1298/
warshel-fted-by-royal-society-of-chemistry/  

Arieh Warshel

Born: 20 November 1940, Kibbutz Sde-Nahum, Israel
Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Prize motivation: "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Links to other sites
- Arieh Warshel, University of Southern California

Articles
Levitt, M. (2001) The birth of computational structural biology, Nature structural biology 8:392-393.
Karplus, M. (2006) Spinach on the Ceiling: A Theoretical Chemist’s Return to Biology,
Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 35: 1-47.
Johnson, P. (2012) Warshel Feted by Royal Society of Chemistry, http://128.125.126.117/news/stories/1298/
warshel-fted-by-royal-society-of-chemistry/

사진 및 내용 출처: "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013 - Press Release". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 9 Oct 2013.  
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